Particular autoimmune disorders are frequently classified into organ-specific disorders and non-organ-specific types. Autoimmune processes can have various results, for example, slow destruction of a specific type of cells or tissue, stimulation of an organ into excessive growth, or interference in its function. Organs and tissues frequently affected include the endocrine gland, such as thyroid, pancreas, and adrenal glands; components of the blood, such as red blood cells; and the connective tissues, skin, muscles, and joints. Some autoimmune diseases fall between the two types. Patients may experience several organ-specific diseases at the same time. There is however little overlap between the two ends of the spectrum.
In organ-specific disorders, the autoimmune process is directed mostly against one organ. Examples, with the organ affected, include Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (thyroid gland), pernicious anemia (stomach), Addison’s Disease (adrenal glands), and Type 1 Diabetes (pancreas).